Sustainable metallurgical processes
General theme: In this Research Line the focus is on developing sustainable metallurgical processes that can be integrated into near-zero-waste flow sheets for the production, recovery and recycling of base and critical metals such as iron and steel, copper, zinc, nickel, cobalt, lead, rare earth metals and precious metals. The Research comprises both pyro/electrometallurgical and hydro/solvometallurgical unit processes. The experimental work covers the full range from lab to pilot and industrial scale and is supported by advanced characterisation techniques (cf. Research Line 1) and modelling approaches. The explicit goal is to develop processes with the lowest possible footprint in terms of CO2 emissions, energy, water and/or use of chemicals. To corroborate the advantages the processes are benchmarked with state-of-the-art industrial processes. This Research Line is fully synchonised with the clean energy and smart moblity targets set forth in the European Green Deal (EC,COM(2019)640) and A New Industrial Strategy for Europe (EC,COM(2020)102).